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上海硅酸鹽所在鋰電池安全性提升研究中取得進展

文章來源:上海硅酸鹽研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  最近,中國科學院上海硅酸鹽研究所研究員溫兆銀團隊通過離子導電型引發劑實現了凝膠聚合物電解質的原位制備,該凝膠聚合物電解質具有優異的耐火性能,基于該電解質組裝的固態鋰電池在同時承受剪切與火燒條件(火焰溫度528)下仍能為發光二極管陣列供電,使鋰電池的安全性大大提高。相關工作申請了中國發明專利,主要研究結果以In Situ Generated Fireproof Gel Polymer Electrolyte with Li6.4Ga0.2La3Zr2O12 As Initiator and Ion-Conductive Filler 為題發表在國際期刊《先進能源材料》(Advanced Energy Materials上,論文第一作者為上海硅酸鹽所在讀博士研究生徐東,導師為溫兆銀。

  凝膠聚合物電解質(GPE)在一定程度上兼具固態聚合物電解質(SPE)的高安全性與液態電解質高離子電導率的優點,被認為是當前最適合實際應用的一種電解質體系。目前研究較多的是基于聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)及其衍生物的凝膠聚合物電解質體系。然而凝膠電解質中仍然含有一定量的可燃性液態電解質,存在安全隱患。為進一步提高其安全性能以及電化學性能,科研工作者做了大量的研究工作,主要包括有機-有機共混改性、有機-無機復合改性、物理/化學交聯改性等。但大多數文獻并未對凝膠聚合物電解質的安全性能進行詳細報道。另一方面,在目前常用的相轉換法等凝膠聚合物電解質的制備過程中,使用了大量揮發性有機溶劑,既污染環境,又增加成本,且制備過程繁瑣。采用原位交聯聚合制備的方法可以避免或減輕上述問題。

  溫兆銀團隊以石榴石型固體電解質(Li6.4Ga0.2La3Zr2O12)為引發劑和離子導電型填料,在聚偏氟乙烯-六氟丙烯共聚物(PVDF-HFP)的磷酸三乙酯/氟代碳酸乙烯酯(TEP/FEC)混合溶液中引發PVDF-HFP的脫氟和交聯過程,從而實現凝膠聚合物電解質的原位制備,并對凝膠轉變過程的機理進行了深入研究。優化后的凝膠聚合物電解質在20時離子電導率達到1.83×10-3 S cm-1,室溫下電化學穩定窗口4.75V。該凝膠聚合物電解質具有優異的耐火性能,由其組裝的固態鋰電池具有較高的安全性。基于該凝膠聚合物電解質的三元鋰電池表現出較好的循環穩定性。該工作提供了采用防火型凝膠電解質可獲得優良的離子電導率以及保證凝膠聚合物電解質和相應鋰電池高安全性的研究新思路。

  相關工作得到國家重點研發計劃、國家自然科學基金面上項目的資助。

  論文鏈接

 

  防火型凝膠聚合物電解質組成與結構示意圖及基于該凝膠聚合物電解質的軟包鋰電池的剪切和燃燒實驗




(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

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